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Ovarian Cysts

A fluid-filled sac developing on one of the ovaries is called a cyst. Many women develop at least one cyst during their lifetime. In most cases, cysts are painless and cause no symptoms.


Types of cysts:




  1. Follicle cyst: formed in ovary during a menstrual cycle if follicle doesn’t rupture to release the ovum




  2. Corpus luteum cysts: Non dissolution of sac after release of ovum




  3. Dermoid cysts: sac-like growths on the ovaries that contain hair, fat, and other tissue




  4. Cystadenomas: non-cancerous growths that can develop on the outer surface of the ovaries




  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome:This condition means the ovaries contain a large number of small cysts.




  6. Ovarian Cancer: can present as cyst on ovary. More likely in postmenopausal women. Cysts larger than 5cm or complex cysts are suspicious of cancer.




Symptoms:


abdominal bloating or swelling


painful bowel movements


pelvic pain before or during the menstrual cycle


nausea and vomiting


severe or sharp pelvic pain in case of torsion of a cyst or rupture of cyst


Diagnosis:


Hormone levels: to check for hormone-related issues


CA-125 blood test: to screen for ovarian cancer


Ultrasound of pelvis: to look at details of cyst size, no, etc


CT scan: in case of complex cysts


Treatment:


Conservative approach to see if cyst resolves spontaneously without recurrence


Birth control pills: to stop ovulation and prevent the development of recurrent cysts.


Laparoscopy: In case of small cysts detected on routine testing, they can be removed by small incisions using laparoscopy.


Laparotomy: In case of large cysts or if cancer is suspected.




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